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Impact of Environmental Degradation on Upland Poverty: the case of South Kalimantan (Indonesia) and Sarawak (Malaysia)

Aris  Ananta

The poor have often been blamed for environmental degradation, as being poor has caused them to destroy the environment. However, this study concludes that  poverty is not the sufficient condition of the environmental degradation. It is only the necessary condition.  The sufficient condition is the existence of a third party (big companies) that destroys the environment. The  poor join the big companies because they see an opportunity to sustain their livelihood or even increase their income.

We recommend three policies to be implemented simultaneously, in addition to the full enforcement of the laws against environmental degradation. First is to create alternative employment opportunities for the local people so that they do not  depend on activities which are harmful to their own environment.  However, the people, including those from outside their area, may continue contributing to the environmental degradation. The  people may not be able  to resist joining the big companies in the environmentally harmful activities  as long as their own income  will rise. We cannot expect them to have a long vision.

Therefore, we need the second policy, that is to create employment opportunities which heavily depend on the bio-diversity of the environment. By doing so, it is for the interest of the local people to protect and enhance their environment. They will protest  and resist companies and developmental projects which destroy their  environment.

However, such a policy may not work well if those multi-national companies offer incentives and other forms of compensation (“bribery”) to  the local people. Thus, we need the third policy, that is to enlist all goods produced by companies which destroy the environment. The list of the goods is then published and disseminated  to   all over the world, through credible sources such as international websites. The consumers have the right to know whether the goods and services they consume are harmful to the environment and/or are produced using environmentally harmful activities. The strong campaign to increase the consumers’ awareness  will greatly reduce the demand for such products and consequently reduce profit of the companies.  The decline in the profit will reduce the companies’ motivation to destroy the environment.

Read the full paper in ImpactofEnvironmentalDegradationonPoverty

Related article

Trade off between Environmental and Developmental Goals

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Filed under: economy, English, environment, publications, , , , , , , , , , , , ,

MENGAPA CHINA MENGIMPOR BATUBARA DARI INDONESIA?

Aris  Ananta

Seputar  Indonesia, 7  September 2010

China bukan saja mengimpor (membeli) batu bara dari Indonesia, mereka juga berinvestasi di sektor penggalian batu bara di Indonesia.

Mereka juga berminat melakukan berbagai macam investasi untuk memudahkan mendapatkan batu bara dari Indonesia. Apakah mengalami kekurangan persediaan batu bara? Atau mereka punya niat baik membantu perekonomian Indonesia melalui peningkatan ekspor dan investasi asing (foreign direct investment/ FDI)? Bukan itu alasannya. Alasan yang benar: mereka tidak ingin merusak lingkungan mereka sendiri dengan peningkatan penggalian batu bara yang luar biasa.Mereka membutuhkan batu bara untuk mendorong peningkatan ekonomi mereka yang luar biasa, maka mereka memutuskan untuk mencari dan menggali batu bara dari negara lain, termasuk Indonesia dan Vietnam. Read the rest of this entry »

Filed under: Bahasa Indonesia, economy, , , , , , , , , , ,



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