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Demographic Changes and International Labor Mobility in Indonesia

Demographic Changes and International Labor Mobility in Indonesia

By Aris Ananta and Evi Nurvidya Arifin

This paper aims to contribute a better understanding on the demographic and mobility transitions in Indonesia. It describes the relatively fast demographic transition and the accompanying change in migration pattern in Indonesia, a multiethnic and multi-religious country. The discussion on mobility transition includes both internal and international migration. The discussion on the stages of the demographic transition is not limited to the “first demographic transition”, but also included the “second demographic transition”. The first transition is completed when the population reaches replacement level of fertility, usually with TFR (total fertility rate) about 2.2. Van de Kaa (1987) coined the terms “second demographic transition” when the population is already below replacement level of fertility, with TFR lower than 2.2 per woman and IMR (infant mortality rate) less than 30 per 1000 live births. The shift to the second demographic transition indicates a shift from the dominant role of community to that of individual behaviour and decision.

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