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Abandoning Forced Retirement: a means to increase economic resilience of the elderly

AbandoningForcedRetirement

15 October 2017

 

Dear Readers,

Here is a poster presented at the 8th APRU Population Ageing Conference. Ageing and Resilience in the 21st Century. Singapore: 11-13 October 2017

I hope you enjoy it and interested to carry out further studies in this topic.

Best regards,

 

Aris

 

 

 

 

 

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Filed under: ageing, Demography, economy, English, publications,

Demographic Dividend? No, It is Education Dividend

24 May 2017

Dear readers,

The word “demographic dividend” has been used frequently in Indonesia, especially when we examine relationship between population change and economic development. The main argument of the concept is that falling fertility has reduced young dependency ratio (“burden” from population under 14 years old), and rising number of “productive” working age population (15-64 years old). The concept further argues that the rising number is favourable for economic growth.

However,  Lutz (2015) showed that the concept of “demographic dividend” omitted an important intermediate variable — education. Declining fertility is not automatically transformed into rising productivity. To make the falling young dependency ratio favourable to economic growth, rising education, especially female education, should have increased accompanying the  decline in the young dependency ratio. Therefore, Lutz argued that we should talk about Education Dividend, rather than Demographic Dividend.

You may click here to read the article by Lutz on world population and human capital.

Further studies should be made on the current status of human capital of population aged 15-64 years old. How productive are they? Are population 15-24 already productive, or still in school? How is the health of the population? Is there any available employment opportunities for them?

If the status of human capital is low, the relative large number of population aged 15-64 can be disaster rather than a dividend. With low education, low productivity, and lack of employment opportunities, these young people can be exploited as a source of social and political instability.

Best regards,

Aris Ananta

Filed under: Demography, publications, statistics, , ,

The Indonesian Development Experience

 

The Indonesian Development Experience: 

 A  Collection of Writings and Speeches

 

This book, written by Widjojo Nitisastro, the influential economist and architect of the economy during the beginning of the New Order  in Indonesia, will be published by Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS) in the middle of 2011. It has a rich selection of speeches and writings of Professor Widjojo Nitisastro during 1968 to 1993.  Much of his life’s work was dedicated to radically changing Indonesia’s command economy (during Soekarno era) to focus on development planning using economic analysis.  He is one of the most respected and influential economists of the twentieth century.

 

This book provides invaluable insight for all who are interested in Indonesia’s economic development. It is divided into six parts: Indonesia’s Development Plan; Implementation of Indonesian Development; Facing Economic Crises; Foreign Debt Management; Equity and Development; and Indonesia and the World.(*)

 

Related articles:

* Widjojo Nitisastro and Changes to  Development Paradigms

* Widjojo Nitisastro: Perombak Paradigma Pembangunan (e-books)

 

Filed under: economy, English, publications, , , , , , , ,

Impact of Environmental Degradation on Upland Poverty: the case of South Kalimantan (Indonesia) and Sarawak (Malaysia)

Aris  Ananta

The poor have often been blamed for environmental degradation, as being poor has caused them to destroy the environment. However, this study concludes that  poverty is not the sufficient condition of the environmental degradation. It is only the necessary condition.  The sufficient condition is the existence of a third party (big companies) that destroys the environment. The  poor join the big companies because they see an opportunity to sustain their livelihood or even increase their income.

We recommend three policies to be implemented simultaneously, in addition to the full enforcement of the laws against environmental degradation. First is to create alternative employment opportunities for the local people so that they do not  depend on activities which are harmful to their own environment.  However, the people, including those from outside their area, may continue contributing to the environmental degradation. The  people may not be able  to resist joining the big companies in the environmentally harmful activities  as long as their own income  will rise. We cannot expect them to have a long vision.

Therefore, we need the second policy, that is to create employment opportunities which heavily depend on the bio-diversity of the environment. By doing so, it is for the interest of the local people to protect and enhance their environment. They will protest  and resist companies and developmental projects which destroy their  environment.

However, such a policy may not work well if those multi-national companies offer incentives and other forms of compensation (“bribery”) to  the local people. Thus, we need the third policy, that is to enlist all goods produced by companies which destroy the environment. The list of the goods is then published and disseminated  to   all over the world, through credible sources such as international websites. The consumers have the right to know whether the goods and services they consume are harmful to the environment and/or are produced using environmentally harmful activities. The strong campaign to increase the consumers’ awareness  will greatly reduce the demand for such products and consequently reduce profit of the companies.  The decline in the profit will reduce the companies’ motivation to destroy the environment.

Read the full paper in ImpactofEnvironmentalDegradationonPoverty

Related article

Trade off between Environmental and Developmental Goals

Filed under: economy, English, environment, publications, , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Reviews on Indonesia’s Population Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape

Indonesia’s Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape was published in 2003, by the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore.

Graeme Hugo, PhD.,  Professor of Geography, Director, The National Centre for Social Applications of Geographic Information Systems, The University of Adelaide, said:

  • “This is a most interesting book to all students of Indonesian society. It presents data on religion and ethnicity collected in the 2000 Indonesian census in an accessible way. The 2000 census was the first since the colonial Volkstelling of 1930 to collect information on ethnicity. Although Indonesia is one of the worlds most ethnically heterogeneous nations  both the Orde Lama of President Sukarno and Orde Baru of President Suharto eschewed recognition of ethnic groups in the interest of developing national unity. Hence the data examined in this book have been long awaited by many Indonesianists. ” His full review is here.

Sharon Siddique, a partner in a Singapore-based regional consulting firm, mentioned that  the book is “New Light on Indonesia’s Ethnic Makeup”. She further  said

“…This book lays out a feast of data for the thoughtful. It is particularly timely as businessmen, scholars and journalists grapple with the implications of Indonesia’s decentralization policies on provincial-level politics and development dynamics. Certainly ethnicity and religion are issues that require careful consideration. This book is an invaluable reference.” Her full review is here.

Filed under: English, publications, , , , , , , ,

Widjojo Nitisastro and changes to development paradigms

The Jakarta Post
Sunday, January 31, 2010

Aris Ananta, Contributor, Jakarta

Widjojo Nitisastro is a humble man, not well known outside his circle. However, quietly, he made a very important contribution to the Indonesian economy, as the main architect of the Indonesian economy at the beginning of the New Order in 1966.

A book of his notes, Pengalaman Pembangunan Indonesia. Kumpulan Tulisan dan Uraian Widjojo Nitisastro (Indonesian Development Experiences. A Collection of Writing and Notes of Widjojo Nitisastro), was launched in Jakarta on Jan. 14.

Times change, and so do issues and challenges. In turn, paradigms must change too. History shows that crises often force us to adopt paradigm changes. Unfortunately, not all crises result in paradigm changes. Without paradigm changes, deeper and longer crises may occur. This phenomenon is also observed in the history of economic ideas. Read the rest of this entry »

Filed under: economy, English, publications, , , , , , , , ,

Demographic Changes and International Labor Mobility in Indonesia

Demographic Changes and International Labor Mobility in Indonesia

By Aris Ananta and Evi Nurvidya Arifin

This paper aims to contribute a better understanding on the demographic and mobility transitions in Indonesia. It describes the relatively fast demographic transition and the accompanying change in migration pattern in Indonesia, a multiethnic and multi-religious country. The discussion on mobility transition includes both internal and international migration. The discussion on the stages of the demographic transition is not limited to the “first demographic transition”, but also included the “second demographic transition”. The first transition is completed when the population reaches replacement level of fertility, usually with TFR (total fertility rate) about 2.2. Van de Kaa (1987) coined the terms “second demographic transition” when the population is already below replacement level of fertility, with TFR lower than 2.2 per woman and IMR (infant mortality rate) less than 30 per 1000 live births. The shift to the second demographic transition indicates a shift from the dominant role of community to that of individual behaviour and decision.

Read the rest of this entry »

Filed under: English, internal migration, international migration, migration, publications, , , ,



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