We have just published “The Past Three Population Censuses: A Deepening Ageing Population in Indonesia”. In Contemporary Demographic Transformation in China, India and Indonesia. Edited by Christophe Z. Guilmoto and Gavin W. Jones. New York: Springer, 2016.
About the Chapter
This chapter highlights a deepening ageing population in Indonesia between 1990 and 2010, a period witnessing a political change from an authoritarian regime to a democratizing one. This transition brought a drastic shift in population policy, with a much weaker family planning programmes than during the authoritarian regime. Our assessment from the latest 2010 census suggests that the proportion of population aged 60 year and above was 7.6 percent in 2010, rising from 6.3 per cent in 1990; while the number increased to 18.0 million from 11.3 million. The growth rate of older persons for this period is well above the rate of the general population, 4.7 percent vs 2.9 percent annually.
This chapter also shows a large variation in the age structure of the sub-national population. The structure at the national level remains heavily affected by changes in fertility and mortality only. However, changes at sub-national levels, particularly district level, have also been determined by migration.
The latest census also depicts a significant improvement in educational attainment of older persons, as those without schooling decreased to 31.6 percent from 58.5 percent in 1990. At the same period, participation of the elderly in the labour market rose from 48.1 percent to 51.2 percent in the same period. Furthermore, working as self-employed in the agricultural sector remains to be the main source of financial well-being for the older persons.